Education

Situational Leadership Applied to the Classroom

Flickr photo by velkr0

For individuals who have a business degree or most who have taken a few business courses you have probably heard of situational leadership? Others of you may have read, or at least heard of the book, The One Minute Manager or some of the other related books authored or co-authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard. For those of you who may not be familiar with the business management concept of situational leadership let me first cover that very briefly. The core of the Blanchard model, Situational Leadership II, highlights four primary leadership delivery styles: directive, coaching, supportive, and delegating. What sets situational leadership apart from many other leadership models is the practical aspect that it also takes into consideration the development level of the subordinate or employee. Using a four step sliding scale the employee is rated on competence and commitment.

This discussion is intended to show how the concept if situational leadership is easily applied to classroom situations to achieve maximum learning. For the benefit of this discussion, when thinking of the situational leadership model substitute the word manager for teacher or instructor and substitute the word employee for student or class participants.

The win – win of applying situational leadership concepts in the classroom comes when the instructor, uses the most effective delivery style that is matched to the level of development of the student at the correct time of need. One example would be the teacher best at using a coaching approach when the student has a low commitment but some competence on a class project. Another correct example would be the teacher most effectively uses a supporting team approach matched to the student who has high competence but variable commitment.

A situational designed education program allows for the teacher to be most effective in their delivery approach by correctly matching the delivery method with the student as he/she learns and works through different development levels. It is important that clear learning objectives and expected learning outcomes are established and communicated from the outset of the experience by both the teacher and student. A successful situational designed education program can be a win – win –win for everyone, the student, the teacher, and the organization that supports the program.

How to Be Effective Using the Situational Classroom

Learning objectives are a key to selecting the best delivery approach for use by the instructor in a classroom. Once you determine the development and motivation level of your students, your learning objects should indicate when it is appropriate to be directive, when to use a coaching technique, when to be supportive and facilitate a group activity or when to delegate a learning approach.

Being practical, time is an element that also needs to be considered. For an individual class that is typically one hour in length it would be difficult for the instructor to effectively try and incorporate more than two delivery styles. Keep to the philosophy that the key to successful instruction in the situational classroom is matching the right delivery style to the development level of the student, at the correct time of need. The instructor should focus on a simple and effective delivery style. Subject matter substance should be emphasized over multiple styles when time is limited.

If you are teaching a half day or full day session, and the learning objectives indicate that a progressive learning track is the expected outcome then the use of multiple teaching styles and techniques might be considered. For a course that is a full day or longer, adult learners will find that instructors following a situational delivery progression more rewarding. If the learning activity is a day or two in length, as are many workshops and seminars for professional and executives, try not to cram too much “new” material into the timeframe. An eight hour or twenty hour course allows ample time to progress from a directive instruction style (lecture) to a delegating style of instruction (agreed upon action plan).

For those of you who teach an online instructor lead course, or certification courses, or traditional college classes I recommend breaking the overall course down into four parts. Start with the basics using directive, lecture approach and continue to progressively increase student involvement with each session. The instruction should progress slowly through each instructional style building one upon the other. The instructor needs to check regularly to ensure that students have reached the learning development level which matches the style of instruction that is being used.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, The One Minute Manager Builds High Performing Teams authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard, Donald Carew, Eunice Parisi-Carew.

A Situational Classroom: When to use a directive style

Educators all know the importance of clear, well written learning objectives. Knowing what you want the student to learn and what knowledge they should leave the classroom with is critical to the success of an instructor. Once the learning objectives are written the instructor needs to select the correct delivery approach to most effectively reach the students. Not all instructor delivery styles will effectively transfer the knowledge to the students identified in the learning objectives as intended. The variables of learning in the classroom are many but the instructor can increase his/her success rate by selecting and using the appropriate delivery style.

How do you know which delivery style is the most effective to use, and when? One method to selecting the appropriate style can be determined by referring to the core elements of situational leadership. There are four primary leadership delivery styles: directive, coaching, supportive, and delegating. What’s important to know about situational leadership is that it considerations the development level of the student. Using a four step sliding scale the student is rated on competence and commitment. Similar to reaching success following the situational leadership model, to achieve maximum learning the key to successful instruction in the situational classroom is matching the right delivery style to the development level of the student, at the correct time of need.

The best time for the instructor to use a directive style of delivery (telling and showing) is when the student has a high commitment to learning the subject but has little or no competence in the subject area (enthusiastic beginner). Examples of a directive style of delivery include speeches, lectures (PowerPoint), and demonstrations. On the internet, delivery of a webinar generally comes under the directive style of delivery.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, Leadership and the One Minute Manager authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard.

A Situational Classroom: When to use a coaching style

So your next class is intended for students who have some knowledge of the subject matter but they do not have a strong comprehension? The student’s commitment to advance their knowledge to learning more about the subject matter seems to be wavering. Think of the individual who learned the basics of tennis but wants to give up because they aren’t very good after four weeks of training and just can’t seem to consistently keep their serve between the lines. Or the individual who purchases a new phone for the twitter function but can’t figure out how to use the hash marks correctly so they just give up on that function.

After you finish writing the learning objectives for the class you realize that just telling the students about the topic or showing them how something is done is no longer the most effective approach for the student to truly learn the subject matter. You know that the student has some knowledge but realize too that the student does not yet have mastery of that subject matter. Knowing what you, the instructor want the student to learn and what knowledge they should retain after leaving the class is critical to the next level of learning in their development. The key to successful instruction in the situational classroom is matching the right delivery style to the development level of the student, at the correct time of need.

When students are at this moderate stage of learning development the use of role playing and roundtable discussions are two excellent ways to engage and support the students learning process. At this stage of the students development the instructional techniques require that the subject is told “how to” and/or is provided with a demonstration of what they are expected to learn. The student is then expected to try to demonstrate their knowledge or skill. The instructor stays involved by observing the demonstration and providing constructive feedback to the student. Ideally, this process is repeated until the student correctly demonstrates mastery of the knowledge or skill enough to take successfully to the next level. Some simple online gaming tools have been developed and designed that follow this model, such as the DMV’s defensive driving school. Using both a high directive style of instruction along with high supportive behavior and feedback, the instructor is using a coaching style of delivery correctly.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, Leadership and the One Minute Manager authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard.

A Situational Classroom: When to use a supporting style

You have now been working with your students for awhile and they are progressing in the subject matter. You notice that they have reached a high level of competence but you also note that the student’s commitment is not consistent and still varies. Think of the individual who has mastered most of the basic skills of drawing and design but is beginning to get bored by the daily routine and repetition of fine tuning the skills that they have already learned. After awhile it becomes difficult to stay focused and committed.

Your current learning objectives indicate that the next level of development is more than individual skills sets that the students have been practicing. The students are consistently demonstrating their mastery of the skills when required. They have grown to the point where they are becoming frustrated by either repeatedly being challenged by you or by challenging themselves. Since the key to successful instruction in the situational classroom is matching the right delivery style to the development level of the student, at the correct time of need, the students are ready to demonstrate their knowledge or skills in front of their peers.

Several excellent ways to engage students at this next moderate level of learning development include group activities such as gaming, case studies and charrettes. The instructors skills need to transform from directing, lecturing, coaching and feedback to one of facilitating, listening, praising and providing constructive feedback. At this stage of the students’ development the student interacts with peers demonstrating their knowledge and/or skill. The instructor stays involved but at more of a distance observing and guiding. For online instruction, chat rooms, discussion groups and designed group learning activities can provide similar results. For the instructor, using a low level of directive instruction along with high supportive behavior and feedback, the instructor is using a supporting style of delivery correctly.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, Leadership and the One Minute Manager authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard.

A Situational Classroom: What about the impact of group dynamics?

So far in our situational classroom series we have stressed what classroom format and delivery model the instructor might best utilize to maximize learning by the individual student. So when the instructor determines that a supportive style of instruction is most appropriate, plan carefully. For the best learning results review the course content and design well ahead of time. Consider how different the skills of supporting and facilitation are from lecturing, directing and coaching during the implementation and delivery phases of this learning model. Remember that facilitation of a group correctly usually takes more time to cover. Think of covering the material by a lecture or covering the same material using a case study. http://www.lowther7.com/courses/instructor-facilitator-understanding-gro...

Let’s look here at the similarities of an individual’s learning development and stages of group development. According to Bruce Tuckman there are four stages to group development. The first stage is forming, individuals seeking acceptance as they avoid conflict. According to the Situational Leadership, team approach, this first stage is orientation. Group participants enter with low to varied competence but generally high commitment, similar to an individual’s first development learning level.

Storming is Tuckman’s second stage of development. At this level team members determine what they are suppose solve and how they will participate within the group. The situational team approach calls this stage dissatisfaction with individuals demonstrating some competence with a low to varying level of commitment.

Groups that successfully work through stage two move into Norming or resolution, the third stage. Some members of the group may have to give up their ideas and agree with others to work towards a common goal. Individuals demonstrate a high competence with variable levels of commitment.

Successful groups reach the fourth stage, performing or production. The team members are motivated, demonstrating high competence and high commitment while working towards the completion of the groups goals.

In a situational classroom, the instructor using a supportive approach needs to be aware that student’s may enter into the group learning activities at different levels of competency and commitment. It is important to facilitate the group as if they are all at the same basic level during the forming/orientation stage. On the part of the instructor/facilitator it is critical that they carefully guide the group to each new development level as a group. Moving to a new level is a skill of balance. Move too soon and you can lose the involvement of students who are not ready. Move too slowly and you can lose the involvement of your advanced students who may get frustrated.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, The One Minute Manager Builds High Performing Teams authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard, Donald Carew, Eunice Parisi-Carew.

A Situational Classroom: When to use a delegating style

As your students progress, at some point they should reach a high level of understanding and competence in the subject matter. When they also demonstrate a high level of commitment it is the right time to adjust your instructional style, using a delegating style. Think of the individual who has mastered the basic theories and concepts. They have demonstrated some advanced technical techniques. Working in small teams they work well and are able to design some interesting buildings with sustainable features. As their instructor it is now time to challenge them again. Since the key to continued successful instruction in the situational classroom is matching the right delivery style to the development level of the student at the correct time of need. It is time for the student to demonstrate what they have learned moving beyond theory and concept and into practice.

Several models that you can use to engage students at this high level of learning development include research projects, self-directed studies, or learning contracts. It is time for the instructor to turn over responsibility to the student in decision-making. That means that the instructor provides little supervision or support. As within the structure of a contract, expectations and outcomes should be agreed upon between the instructor and student at the start of the project. Unless specified, either individual or network group approaches should be acceptable for the project. Upon completion of the project the instructor should providing constructive feedback.

For the instructor, using a low level of directive instruction along with low supportive behavior and feedback, the instructor is using a delegating style of delivery correctly. Delegating behavior should not be confused with dumping or “hands off” instruction. Delegating means that there is still some, just limited involvement of the instructor.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, Leadership and the One Minute Manager authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard.

Learning Objectives Simplified: Check out the New Bloom’s Taxonomy Tool

Candle Flame

The tool is simple, easy to understand, and easy to use. If you are the course designer, a trainer, an instructor, or the firm's Learning and Development Coordinator, Manager, Director or the CLO - this tool will make your professional life a little easier. If only this tool had been available during the past 30 years.

I would like to thank the Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching (CELT) at the University of Iowa for posting on their website the Model of Learning Objectives. This model was created by: Rex Heer, Iowa State University.

Sharing this tool with my professional peers who are working in the A/E/C design industry, this is probably the best gift I can offer for the New Year. Try it for yourself; I think you will like it.

Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

If you have trouble accessing the interactive Flash-based model the content is available in a text-only table.

Free Learning & Development Resources - 7 Tips

Open Source Education

For those of you in the A/E design profession who have difficulty finding free time during a 24/7 work week consider a free, on-demand, learning–in-the-moment approach to supplement your formal training and on-the-job experience. There are a variety of free online resources available to you. Here are some great tricks and online resources for developing your own, personal professional learning skills and development.

7 Tips to Getting Started:
1. Formulate what you need to know. This is called your learning objective and can be revised as you go, but take your best shot when you begin. (Tip: Start with your annual training objectives).
2. Use search engines like Google, Bing, Yahoo, and YouTube (the largest source of online learning) to find three kinds of information: specific, general, and connected.
3. Use search engines to find tutorials, ebooks, online courses and classes – the obvious. But also search and locate online communities (blogs, forums, associations, white papers and chat rooms).
4. Evaluate each resource that you encounter to determine if they relate or are connected to your learning objectives.
5. Organize your information for reading and assembly. If you are learning something that takes longer than a day, you can use free websites like All My Faves and Symbaloo to organize and group your links, and then retrieve them with one click.
6. Read, take notes, and learn the way you learn best.
7. If you have a certificate, membership or license -MCE requirements be sure to record and track your progress. You can do this for free in an EXCEL file or for those of you with a state license and who are willing to pay a little for convenience and due date reminders try AECredentialing.

7 Options of Open Source Courses…..

Coursera:
Outstanding engineering related college-courses from universities like Duke University, Rice University, Escole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, University of Pittsburgh, and Princeton.

Class Central:
A gateway to a variety of online and self-paced courses offered by Stanford, MIT, Harvard, Berkley, Udacity, and Courses.

MIT OpenCourseWare:
Free Online courses from MIT in energy, transportation, environment, business and others areas.

Open Culture – 625 Free Online courses:
625 Free online and self-paced courses offered by Harvard, UC Berkley,
MIT, Carnegie Mellon, and Stanford, that include the sciences, computers, Engineering (Mechanical, Civil & Electrical), Environmental, and basic business.

Ted Conference Videos:
Best for exposure and finding things to learn more about online. Inspirational, informative, cutting edgue and less than 20 minutes long.

YouTube/EDU:
YouTube really now functions as a video search engine, and so you can find much more to learn and see on YouTube than just the EDU area. However, this area has been tuned and curated just for good educational content on traditional subjects.

Today I Found Out:
Daily essays of well-researched interesting topics.

I would like to offer a special thanks to Katin Imes at Expedition 21 Media, Inc. for content suggestions.

How to Analyze a Case Study

Photo by Thom Lowther

Most of you who know me well know that I believe passionately in the use of cases studies as a learning tool. Years ago I discovered a excellent tool for analyzing case studies in the "Handbook for Training and Development" published by ASTD. I share below a simplified version of tool. I have used it often - in professional firms, in associations workshops and in college classrooms.

When analyzing a case study, an orderly, step-by-step approach is helpful. It is important to gain an appreciation of the overall situation initially, as well as to learn what information is contained in the case. Therefore, it is suggested that the case study be skimmed first to gain this overall perspective. While or after doing so, jot down the key points and issues that come to mind, as well as your first impression of the problems, issues, and opportunities facing the company. Then read the case in detail, adding to and modifying your initial thoughts. Remember that not everything in the case is vitally important, nor is all the important information necessarily included. The case represents someone's (e.g., management's) description of the company and its situation - it is up to you to probe deeper, sort and shift things out, and acquire additional information. It is your responsibility to analyze and recommend alternatives and approaches to management.

The following guide may be helpful to you in your task:

1. Define the situation. What are the challenges, problems, potential problems, opportunities, and potential opportunities facing the company? Typically, the case will contain various systems you will have to diagnose. To do so, try and isolate the major issues facing the company and their causes. Keep in mind that there are likely to be sub and secondary issues, as well as related and perhaps extraneous issues described in the case. Your task is to assign priorities to the issues, focusing on the critical few.

2. Assemble and analyze the important facts (gleaned from the case) which bear on the situation.

3. Specify important information that is needed but not included in the case. Determine whether or not it is available elsewhere. If available, acquire about it.

4. Make assumptions! For important information that is not available from the case or elsewhere, make logical assumptions as to what it might be. State these assumptions.

5. Draw conclusions Based on your analysis, information, and assumptions.

6. Determine alternatives and their likely outcomes. What are the major alternative actions open to the company, and what is likely to happen if each is adopted? Evaluate each.

7. Make recommendations. Based on your analysis, what do you recommend to management and why? Be prepared to defend your recommendations under critical questioning by the instructor and the class (the types of questions which might be posed by the company's management and other stakeholders).

8. Prepare an implementation plan. How should your recommendation be implemented, by whom? and in what sequence (short-term versus long-term actions). Where will the resources come from?

9. Prepare contingency plans. What do you recommend if your suggestions do not work as anticipated, or if certain external or internal conditions change?

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