Education

Catalog of Available Courses and Workshops

Below are the titles of seven online courses and/or workshops that are available from Lowther7, LLC Catalog descriptions, learning objectives, and details for each are provided separately following this listing.

Creating Successful Talent Within Your Firm

Available online or by appointment.

Embracing Sustainability in the Workplace

Online only - Instructor-led.

Simple LMS for Firms and Associations

Available online or by appointment.

Cyber Security for Small Businesses

Available online or by appointment.

Overview of Managing Projects

Available online or by appointment.

Developing Online Courses

By appointment only - Instructor-led.

Introduction to Digital & Social Media Marketing

By appointment only - Instructor-led.

Contact us about your workshop questions today; we're happy to help!

Creating Successful Talent Within Your Firm

Description:

This workshop provides practical approaches and tools addressing your firm’s professional talent development challenges. Using a 7 step methodology we will address the why, how, and what to do for staffing development. The workshop will cover areas such as graduate development curriculum, technical skills, client presentations, project management, leadership development, and on-boarding, as well as requirements for licensure and certifications. This workshop addressed the "how-to's" about developing and implementing an effective internal firm-wide, professional training and development program.

Knowledge Level:

This program is structure for Practitioners and Advanced levels. This program is for everyone within the firm responsible for effectively matching people to resources needed to achieve the team member’s professional goals while achieving the firm’s strategic and business goals.

Course Design:

This 8 hour workshop is designed to be delivered on-site. This program has been successfully delivered in a firm with multiple offices using a blended delivery approach. The program allows for Q&A and includes a personalized plan of action.

Learning Objectives:

At the end of this program you will be able to:
1. Identify 2 performance elements of your in-house education program in terms of the firm's strategic and business goals.
2. Determine appropriate development method(s) of your firm’s unique technical or design educational content to advance your firms agenda.
3. Differentiate the most effective delivery method(s) for your firm’s top development priority.
4. Define 4 criteria for use of a master evaluation tool that will guide you in continuously improving your program.

This Course is recommended for:

* Individuals and project teams to supplement a design firm's internal curriculum.

Faculty:

Thom Lowther, Ed.S. Has been involved with the professional development of A/E and design professionals for more than 20 years. Thom is currently the owner and CEO of Lowther7, LLC, a small Veteran owned training and consulting firm. Thom has served as the Senior Director of the American Institute of Architects (AIA) Continuing Education System (CES). He managed the AIA/CES Firm Leadership Symposium series and the AIA/CES Award of Excellence program. He served as staff liaison on the Advisory Panel for Professional Development of the Union of International Architects. With the AIA, Thom worked with 43 state licensing boards to establish mandatory continuing education requirements for architects and engineers. As Vice President of Education at the U.S. Green Building Council, he was responsible for the oversight of LEED related education for design professionals. Following the USGBC Thom was the Americas Region, Learning and Development Associate with the global engineering and design firm, Arup. Thom is a contributing author to the PSMJ Resources monthly newsletter and a Jury member for the 2015 & 2016 LearningElite Awards sponsored by CLO Media.

On-site minimum of 10 participants required to book this workshop.
Contact us about your workshop questions today; we're happy to help!

Embracing Sustainability in the Workplace

Sunset Beach, San Diego - Photo permission of Tiffany Elbogen

Description:

It’s a smart business practice and the right thing to do. Find out how to implement sustainability solutions for your workplace. Gain practical information for yourself and your employees to begin on Monday morning. Brand your organization in the world of environmental stewardship. Your instructors will detail and deliver practical approaches and applications toward implementing sustainability with guidance in planning procedures.

Take back practical tips on operating your indoor environments to consider air, water, lighting, fitness, nutrition, mind and comfort. For anyone pursuing a career in a company or in government where there is an effort to build awareness and to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of environmental stewardship and overall social responsibility.

Agenda: One Unit introduced each week.
Unit 1: The Business Case for Sustainability
-Concepts of Triple Bottom Line: People, Planet, and Profit.
-The Return on Investment ( ROI )
-Human Capital Indicators and Employee Engagement
-Transparency for Stakeholders
-Reducing Energy Use Saves on the Bottom Line

Unit 2: An Internal Sustainability Plan
-Initial Assessment of Current Business Model
-An Office Task Force is Essential
-Designing a Mission Statement
-Basics on Environmental Accounting and Reporting
-Monitoring and Evaluation

Unit 3: Wellness in the Workplace
-New Value Proposition for Well Offices
-Wellness Concepts: Air, water, light, fitness, nutrition, comfort and mind
-Risk vs Reward of Wellness Features
-Sick Building Syndrome

Unit 4: Inner Company Initiatives That Work
-Office Procedural Strategies
-A Strategy for Resource Management
-Assessing Current Supply Chain and Purchasing Procedures
-Tools to Track Sustainable Products and Verify Healthy Purchasing
-Suggestions For Greening Your Office

Knowledge Level:

This course is intended as a introduction to sustainability practices in the work environment.

Program Design:

This instructor-led course is delivered on-line 24/7. Approximately 16 hours over a 4 weeks. Highly interactive with individual activities, group discussions and faculty feedback. Brand your organization in the world of environmental stewardship. Your instructors will detail and deliver practical approaches and applications toward implementing sustainability with guidance in planning procedures.

Learning Outcomes Related to The Business Case for Sustainability:

At the completion of this course you will:
1. Know how to engage staff and co-workers to concentrate on efficient environmental practices and to develop internal planning and policy procedures.
2. Have the ability to implement sustainable business procedures and policies with practical applications.
3. Know how to measure and monitor the effectiveness of company office sustainability procedures.
4. Be able to identify the benefits of implementing healthier building renovations, establish energy saving policies, develop greener purchasing, water and waste procedures and initiate green fleet initiatives.
5. Know how to apply practical approaches and resource conservation measures that affect corporate culture.

Next available course:

• Monday, August 6 until Saturday, August 31, 2018.
• Monday, November 5 until Saturday, November 30, 2018.

• To register - go to YouGotClass/

Faculty

Kelly S. Gearhart

LEED Fellow, LEED AP BD+C, LEED AP O+M, a Principal with Triple Green Building Group, a green building consulting firm with locations in the San Francisco Bay area, Savannah, Georgia and Sophia, Bulgaria. Gearhart is a USGBC LEED Faculty member, Instructor for the University of California, former Manager of Commercial Green Building Services at Southface Energy Institute, Inc. and has been involved with green building education, technical assistance, and leadership since 2005. Accredited in the new Building Design + Construction and Existing Buildings: Operations + Maintenance programs, she has taught over 50 full-day and multi-day LEED courses, facilitated seven full-day and multi-day green building charrettes, presented at 12 conferences, consulted with more than 100 clients on green building strategies and worked on 25 LEED registered and certified projects across the U.S. and internationally.

Kerry Mitchell

Has authored over 150 hours of content on sustainability planning metrics. She teaches employees, affiliates and stakeholders about how the metrics of sustainability will provide measurable results.

Contact us about your session questions today; we're happy to help!

Simple LMS for Firms and Associations

Many LMS systems add confusion

Description

The Simple LMS is based on the philosophy: start as simply as possible and grow as needed with just the features and structures needed. Thus, the Simple LMS is a bare­bones LMS system created on a capable and scalable CMS (Content Management System) platform.

A simple LMS can be built on Drupal 7, and so has hundreds of available modules that can be easily added, as needed, for functionality and expansion. Drupal is also easy to customize (using PHP and CSS) for features and functions that are too custom to be already available as modules.

This start-­simple philosophy assumes that three areas will all be growing and developing together, over time, at a rate dictated by the will and resources of the company:

  • the development of in-­house custom courses and materials;
  • the development of in­-house staff dedicated to staff development and company learning; and
  • the development of company policies, learning metrics, and process for learning paths.

Starting as simply as possible means that the company’s needs and direction will determine the growth and development of the LMS to match.

Knowledge Level:

This course is intended as introductory, and does not include any tutorial content for using specific LMS.

Program Design:

This instructor led session is designed to be delivered on-line in a 1 hour time frame, or in-person in a 1.5 hour interactive format. While there will be time for questions about specific networks, the focus will be on understanding the fundamentals, functions, comparing and contrasting various networks.

Learning Objectives:

At the end of this program you will be able to:

1. List pro's and con's between a simple LMS and a feature-loaded LMS.

2. Explain the difference between SCORM import and export capabilities.

3. Outline a LMS policy for your organization with reasons for each decision.

4. Complete research for designing a simple LMS for your organization.

This Course is Recommended:

• Available online for individuals or small work teams.
• For Regional, State or local association events.
• To support a firm's or organization's internal curriculum.

No participant minimum required to book this session.

Faculty

Katin Imes is an experienced software developer, project manager, and a UX/systems designer. His passion and mission is creating access to the skills, tools, and knowledge that let people thrive in the Information Age. Specialties include: social networking software systems, online courses and LMS (Learning Management Systems), CMS (content management systems), online communities, e-commerce, Drupal, and Open Source. He has developed and managed web systems since 1996, the earliest days of the web, including server operations, hosting, security and encryption, e-commerce, and advanced back-end functionality.

Contact us about your session questions today; we're happy to help!

Gamification: A fad or the future?

Photo of individual participating in online game.

On the professional LinkedIn group, Learning and Development, Eng-Sing SOON from Singapore initiated a discussion by asking if Gamification was a passing fad or the future of learning.

It was not surprising that the discussion quickly jumped towards defining what gamification meant.
Kenneth Camel from New Zealand stated first with, “The process of gamification means using gaming techniques in developing learning events, not necessarily making a game out of learning. Gaming techniques use engagement, teaming and communication to reach an objective. This brings different types of learners together to solve problems (scenarios, role playing and practice). The techniques have been around for a long time. (war gaming, D&D, board games, learning maps, lean manufacturing).”

Jack A. Loganbill from the Unisys Corporation was quick to note that he found that there is a wide difference in opinion of what exactly gamification is as it applies to training. He went on to responded to the question by asking the question “Is it turning the training into a game? Or is it applying gaming attributes the principles that make games so attractive, to the training.

For those who read my recent blog, I too have noticed that when working with different organizations I realized the term gamification has very different meanings to different people. So I opted to simply used Wikipedia’s definition. “Gamification is the use of game thinking and game mechanics in non-game contexts to engage users in solving problems and increase users' self-contributions. Gamification has been studied and applied in several domains, with some of the main purposes being to engage, teach, entertain, measure[, and to improve the perceived ease of use of information systems.”

Personally, I think Katin Imes, from Expedition 21 Media, Inc. provided one most clarifying definitions when he stated, “I want to point out a word-transformation that is happening. The term "gamification" means really different things in different domains. The current term is "on fire" in sales, media, online "customer engagement", and corporate offices but there it means:
- adding track able, effectible metrics to simple customer actions
- presenting those metrics to the public or to a subgroup in a themed, "fun" way that provides competition or rewards
- providing prizes, rewards, freebies, or recognition awards to the highest-metric participants.”

“When a learning professional hears gamification in a sense of applying it to training or learning, the term is much more to do with providing exercises ("games") that directly include the skills or knowledge being learned to be applied in a system ("rules") that provides a clear outcome ("win or lose", "measurable benefit or loss", "rank"). Quality games provide problems or resource situations that cannot be solved well without the skills or knowledge being learned, and allow participants to experiment and "tweak the dials" to experience the outcomes and effects of different strategies and factors or sequences.”

Once you settle on a definition for the term “gamification” you can go back to the question that the title asks: Gamification: A fad or the future of learning? Hopefully your interest has been peaked. There is a general consensus developing among those participating in the discussion on the LinkedIn Learning and Development Group that you can follow. I however will not provide a spoiler.

Gamification as a Situational Learning Tool

Photo by by azwaldo

The use of games or gamification for learning enhancement is not new in education. During the past few years however, there has been a renewed interest in gamification due largely to the new technologies that has become available. If you Google “gamification” it displays more than 700,000 results. Unfortunately too many people create educational games so that they can demonstration a technology rather than because it is the correct tool to improve or increase knowledge or a competency. Before selecting any delivery tools consider context and learning situation.

Working with several different organizations this past fall I realized the term gamification has very different meanings to different people. So for those of you reading this blog let’s establish a common definition used by Wikipedia. Gamification is the use of game thinking and game mechanics in non-game contexts to engage users in solving problems and increase users' self-contributions. Gamification has been studied and applied in several domains, with some of the main purposes being to engage, teach, entertain, measure[, and to improve the perceived ease of use of information systems.”

In the January 2015 issue of Chief Learning Officer is an interview with Jake Orowitz, Head of Wikipedia Library. In the interview Orowitz explains how Wikipedia uses gamification for situational learning to onboard volunteers, sharing the process related to editing material.

There are several interesting business case studies that use Gamification to enhance learning. For Microsoft the situation was to create a bond between the consulting business’ senior managers and to use the opportunity for content delivery and learning, bringing management up to date on the vision, financial results and strategy for the year. A full gamification solution considering context and situations was designed to motivate participation in the event, measuring engagement with the content presented and creating team spirit within the ad-hoc teams formed during the process. As a part of the process the tools to deliver the content were selected using mobile phones and tablets.

Another situation called for improving a course designed for those learning how to specify building materials for the new LEED MR Credit: Building product disclosure and optimization credit, under the Health Product Declaration (HPD) option. A collaborative team between Expedition21Media.com, Lowther7, LLC, and GreenCE was created to meet the challenge. It was determined by the team that a good way to increase learning and have participants better demonstrate competency was to imbed a mini-game in the course at a point after students learned how to specify building materials. To see the results for yourself play the free version of the LEED Materials Credit mini-game!

For the last three decades the popular workshop, the Accounting Game was offered by Educational Discoveries, Inc. and Professional Training International. The situation called for assisting non-CPA’s to understand basic accounting and balance sheet practices. The one day, on-site workshop used a simple lemonade stand business simulation format.

As I stated at the beginning of this blog post, the use of games or gamification for learning is not new to education. One of my first graduate courses was how to create and use games to promote learning, develop skills, and improve competencies. Kevin Werbach and Dan Hunter have written a book entitled, For the Win: How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize Your Business (Wharton Digital Press, 2012).

Through Wharton – University of Pennsylvania and Coursera, Kevin Werbach, offers the free course, Gamification. It is the application of game elements and digital game design techniques to non-game problems, such as business and social impact challenges. This course teaches the mechanisms of gamification, why it has such tremendous potential, and how to use it effectively.

Professional Curriculum: A Benefit Offered by Associations

Graph of the 3 Key Curriculum Elements

I am often asked by association education leaders and executives, how can my association compete against all of the external education providers? My reply is usually the question, why are you trying to compete?€ Associations have an advantage that no commercial business, firm or university can match -MEMBERS, lots of them. The membership usually represents every aspect of the related profession, or should come close. What a wonderful talent pool to provide answers to these questions. Associations have the opportunity to be a reliable, first source for quality education related to the profession.

Where should the association start to build their education programming? The answer, associations should rely upon their members to develop a curriculum. They can effectively create guidelines that supports the entire profession. Drilled down, detailed curriculum can also be created that support niches and sub-groups if desired.

An excellent example of what can be achieved is demonstrated by what the American Institute of Architects (AIA) achieved in 2007 and 2008. Drawing upon member volunteers representing firms, universities, and industry, along with a few staff, they created the foundation of an architect’s professional development curriculum. The curriculum was built upon three key elements. (Note: You can substitute by filling in your professional association below where indicated)

Core Areas: The general area of focus within the practice of (Fill in your profession).

Performance Domains: The key areas of practice in the field of (Fill in your profession) including the specific aspects and activities of professional practice.

Curriculum Proficiencies: The skills and abilities needed to perform professional service. What the professional (Fill in your profession) needs to know to perform successfully within a given area of practice.

Building upon a foundation, the committee began to fill in the curriculum topics. The team focused on the four professional core areas of design, building performance, leadership and practice. From there, they began to build out a recommended curriculum for the practice. Here are some of the skills the team agreed needed to be included for the practice of architecture.

Critical Thinking: Research, data analysis.
Project Management: Project operations, project controls, project delivery.
Practice management: “ Business administration, financial, legal, HR, marketing.
Communications: Written, oral, graphics.
Professional Service:Management Administration, strategic planning, ethics, values.
Technical Skills: Systems technology, BIM, auxiliary/support software.

When I first started at Arup, I talked with Jeffery Beard, Ph.D. and Dee McKenna, J.D., both at the time representing the American Council of Engineering Companies (ACEC) Education and Business Development. Jeff and Dee shared with me an engineering PD curriculum with 16 core areas for development. Like the AIA, Jeff and Dee used this curriculum as a guideline for content delivered in ACEC courses and convention programming.

I shared ACEC'€™s curriculum with my L&D team at Arup. After prioritizing and adjusting the curriculum to meet our own internal needs we began to restructure our own education content. We enhanced the process by adding three competency levels, Awareness, Practitioner, and Mastery and assigning our courses to one of these competency levels.

The AIA had a seven year head start while ACEC had five years before a large design firm took advantage of the reliable information source provided by these two associations. Most external providers in the industry are still struggling in the design structure of their course offerings. Postscript. Based in part upon the foundation provided by the recommended ACEC curriculum, Arup was recognized in March as a 2014 LearningElite company in learning and development by CLO Media. Only two design firms even made the list.

Recognition: The 2007 Curriculum Sub-Committee and the Continuing Education Quality Assurance Program participants included:

Curriculum Committee and CEQAP Participants:
Mike Rodriguez, FAIA; Amy Yurko, AIA; Mike Broshar, FAIA; Emily Grandstaff-Rice, AIA; Jonathan Fischel, FAIA; Brenda Scheer, AIA; Mark Graham, AIA; Quentin Elliott, AIA; William Seider, AIA; Ed Vidlak, AIA; Gordon, Mills, FAIA; Marvin Malecha, FAIA; James Mitnick, PE; Robert Lopez, RA.and Leslie Nathan, AIA;

AIA Staff:
C.D. Pangallo Ed.D; Patricia Lukas, M.A.; Richard Hayes Ph.D., RAIC, AIA; Theodora Campbell-Orde; Barb Sido, ABD; Thom Lowther, Ed.S. and Daniel Bauman (AIA Intern);

Building a Design Firm'€™s Professional Development Program - Introduction

http://www.flickr.com/photos/nasacommons/7876163956/sizes/m/in/set-72157631277625484/

For nearly three decades I have been designing and managing organization-wide professional development programs. Early on I figured that to reach high standards I should try to model my programs after some of the best in the business, so I would regularly pull ideas from different industry award program guidelines and applications. The various awards programs use buzz words and phrases like: Excellence; quality and total quality management (TQM); the customer is always right; best practices; and elite programs.

Over the years I have submitted my organizations for professional development awards. I have also served on jury’s, managed continuing education award programs, designed award programs, and trained jurors of award programs. What I discovered is that while the award applications, processes and criteria may be different depending upon who is offering the award, there are still common themes and practices between them.

Using the Baldrige National Quality Award and IACET as models, we created the AIA/CES Award for Excellence for The American Institute of Architects, Continuing Education System. This program was used as a cornerstone for building a national continuing education program that shaped education offered in the design industry. Today, other learning and development award programs such as the ASTD-Awards/Best-Awards and the Chief Learning Officer, CLOmedia Awards are also being used to elevate the practice learning and development.

As part one of an eight part blog series I have assembled common themes from these and other prestigious organizational award programs. Not all of the awards programs are specific to learning and development but they do reflect similar core values. Since award applications, structures and terminology differ greatly I have taken this opportunity to organize the core values that we found and used to create the AIA/CES Award for Excellence. The core values listed below are generic and can apply to many professions and industries.

Common core values that address the following:
* Commitment and support €”examines the firm'€™s educational commitment and support.
* Planning and analysis €”examines the firm’s structure for analyzing the educational needs and professional development of the professional.
* Design and implementation €”examines the program(s) goal setting, learning objectives, design, and delivery methods.
* Resources and records €”examine human resources and the record-keeping process.
* Evaluation and improvement €”examines evaluation and improvement process of the education activities.
The assessment guidelines that you can view in the remaining seven installments of this blog are intended to assist those individuals who are responsible for establishing and operating an Architectural/Engineering Design Firms’ professional education department. The recommendations are organized in a manner that should be used as general guidelines to establish, organize, and manage the organizational structure of the firm. This assessment tool is not intended for the design or development of any individual course, certification, skills or professional program.

Building a Design Firm'€™s Professional Development Program - Strategy

Photo of Strategy Outline

I have been designing and managing organization-wide professional development programs for years. Early on I figured that to reach high standards I should try to model my programs after some of the best in the business, so I would regularly pull ideas from different industry award program guidelines and applications. The various awards programs used buzz words and phrases like: Excellence; quality and total quality management (TQM); the customer is always right; best practices; and elite programs.

In part two of this eight part series I have assembled requirements from several prestigious organizational award programs that appear with consistency. The self-assessment guidelines presented in this piece are intended to assist those individuals who are responsible for establishing and operating an Architectural/Engineering Design and Consulting Firms’ professional education department. The recommendations provided are organized in a manner that should be used as general guidelines to establish, organize, and manage the organizational structure of the firm. This assessment tool is not intended for the design or development of any individual course, certification, skill or professional program.

KEY 1: Strategy:

Overall, work to gain a commitment at all levels of the firm. Building a successful program needs senior level support. It needs senior management’s involvement in creating and sustaining the firm’s educational direction, performance, and focus. And it should include the development of a strategic process that ties education into the overall business plan of the firm.

Key 1 examines senior management’s involvement in creating and sustaining the firm’s educational strategy, commitment, and support. This section provides recommendations for long-term education and professional development planning and program development.

Leadership Involvement
1. CEO/executive team leaders set direction and seek future educational opportunities.
2. Leadership set performance expectations and metrics.
3. Leadership reviews the education program's overall performance.
4. Leadership takes into account the educational needs and expectations of all key personnel.

The Firm'€™s Strategic Education Plan:
5. Describes how the firm’s professional development strategy aligns with the firm’s business strategy and objectives.
6. Uses key performance indicators to measure the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (Ex: forecasts, models, projections, etc.)
7. Outlines educational expectations, including options to seek new educational opportunities and/or prepare for new requirements.
8. Explains the process for analyzing the cost benefit of education investment for the firm.
9. Clarifies the firm’s approach to coordinating knowledge sharing efforts with the delivery of education.

Sources:
Using the Baldrige National Quality Award and IACET as models, a special task force created the AIA/CES Award for Excellence for The American Institute of Architects, Continuing Education System. This program was used as a cornerstone for building a national continuing education program that shaped education offered in the design industry. Today, other learning and development award programs such as the ASTD-Awards/Best-Awards and the Chief Learning Officer, CLOmedia Awards are also being used to elevate the practice of learning and development.

With So Many MOOCs How Can Associations and Non-Profit’s Compete?

Laptop Computer photo from Flickr Commons

Massive open online courses or MOOCs are challenging and disrupting the traditional models of higher education and the practices of corporate learning and development.
In a recent article, Here Come the MOOCs, by Frank Kalman (Chief Learning Officer, January 2014) Mr. Kalman writes about the impact of MOOCs and the influence they are having on corporate learning. I will add, if the corporate world has to adjust to MOOCs, so too will professional and trade associations and non-profit organizations.

Two years ago, when I was working for a global engineering and design firm I wrote the blog Free Learning and Development Resources – 7 Tips. The blog included the names and websites for several of the same open online courses providers that Mr. Kalman discusses in his 2014 article. My purpose for writing the blog was to introduce to the firms’ staff, some free educational resources, beyond those that the firm offered internally. In the U.S. and Canada, most of the firm’s staff had historically relied upon internal training or professional and trade associations for their professional development training. Considering the increasing volume of MOOCs, a tight economy, the ease of mobile learning, and the increasing competition of industry specific online education providers – where does that now leave professional and trade associations and non-profits who offer education?

The root and strength of associations and non-profits has been their networking opportunities and the ability to share ideas related to common interest and issues. We know that social networking is radically changing the professional networking landscape. Still, these organizations are usually viewed by their members, and in some case the general public, as a reliable source of information that supports the betterment of the industry or mission of those involved. Professional and trade associations and non-profit organizations need to focus on their mission, their niche. Does the mission include the education and development of their members or the public? If the answer is yes to either or both of these audiences then the next step is to consider what knowledge they need to impart or information they want to share, that best serves their organizations interest. The mission focus of the association and non-profit organization is one of the major advantages they have over MOOCs. It can also align them closer with segments of the corporate world than the MOOCs. If monitored closely, the focus provides them with a competitive edge with early insight to practice changes, key issues and trends of a specific industry. Beyond specific issues and industry needs, associations and non-profit organizations can more logically tailor their business courses such as leadership, marketing, project management, accounting and legal practices to the specific needs of their membership. They should also have intimate knowledge of what and when certifications and, or continuing education license requirements are due. Depending upon available resources, technical capabilities, and finances, they should be able to adapt quickly with the most effective delivery format for their membership and interest groups.

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