ASAE

American Society of Association Executives (ASAE) is a membership organization of more than 22,000 association executives and industry partners representing more than 11,000 organizations. Members manage leading trade associations, individual membership societies and voluntary organizations across the United States and in nearly 50 countries around the world.

With So Many MOOCs How Can Associations and Non-Profit’s Compete?

Laptop Computer photo from Flickr Commons

Massive open online courses or MOOCs are challenging and disrupting the traditional models of higher education and the practices of corporate learning and development.
In a recent article, Here Come the MOOCs, by Frank Kalman (Chief Learning Officer, January 2014) Mr. Kalman writes about the impact of MOOCs and the influence they are having on corporate learning. I will add, if the corporate world has to adjust to MOOCs, so too will professional and trade associations and non-profit organizations.

Two years ago, when I was working for a global engineering and design firm I wrote the blog Free Learning and Development Resources – 7 Tips. The blog included the names and websites for several of the same open online courses providers that Mr. Kalman discusses in his 2014 article. My purpose for writing the blog was to introduce to the firms’ staff, some free educational resources, beyond those that the firm offered internally. In the U.S. and Canada, most of the firm’s staff had historically relied upon internal training or professional and trade associations for their professional development training. Considering the increasing volume of MOOCs, a tight economy, the ease of mobile learning, and the increasing competition of industry specific online education providers – where does that now leave professional and trade associations and non-profits who offer education?

The root and strength of associations and non-profits has been their networking opportunities and the ability to share ideas related to common interest and issues. We know that social networking is radically changing the professional networking landscape. Still, these organizations are usually viewed by their members, and in some case the general public, as a reliable source of information that supports the betterment of the industry or mission of those involved. Professional and trade associations and non-profit organizations need to focus on their mission, their niche. Does the mission include the education and development of their members or the public? If the answer is yes to either or both of these audiences then the next step is to consider what knowledge they need to impart or information they want to share, that best serves their organizations interest. The mission focus of the association and non-profit organization is one of the major advantages they have over MOOCs. It can also align them closer with segments of the corporate world than the MOOCs. If monitored closely, the focus provides them with a competitive edge with early insight to practice changes, key issues and trends of a specific industry. Beyond specific issues and industry needs, associations and non-profit organizations can more logically tailor their business courses such as leadership, marketing, project management, accounting and legal practices to the specific needs of their membership. They should also have intimate knowledge of what and when certifications and, or continuing education license requirements are due. Depending upon available resources, technical capabilities, and finances, they should be able to adapt quickly with the most effective delivery format for their membership and interest groups.

Situational Leadership Applied to the Classroom

Flickr photo by velkr0

For individuals who have a business degree or most who have taken a few business courses you have probably heard of situational leadership? Others of you may have read, or at least heard of the book, The One Minute Manager or some of the other related books authored or co-authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard. For those of you who may not be familiar with the business management concept of situational leadership let me first cover that very briefly. The core of the Blanchard model, Situational Leadership II, highlights four primary leadership delivery styles: directive, coaching, supportive, and delegating. What sets situational leadership apart from many other leadership models is the practical aspect that it also takes into consideration the development level of the subordinate or employee. Using a four step sliding scale the employee is rated on competence and commitment.

This discussion is intended to show how the concept if situational leadership is easily applied to classroom situations to achieve maximum learning. For the benefit of this discussion, when thinking of the situational leadership model substitute the word manager for teacher or instructor and substitute the word employee for student or class participants.

The win – win of applying situational leadership concepts in the classroom comes when the instructor, uses the most effective delivery style that is matched to the level of development of the student at the correct time of need. One example would be the teacher best at using a coaching approach when the student has a low commitment but some competence on a class project. Another correct example would be the teacher most effectively uses a supporting team approach matched to the student who has high competence but variable commitment.

A situational designed education program allows for the teacher to be most effective in their delivery approach by correctly matching the delivery method with the student as he/she learns and works through different development levels. It is important that clear learning objectives and expected learning outcomes are established and communicated from the outset of the experience by both the teacher and student. A successful situational designed education program can be a win – win –win for everyone, the student, the teacher, and the organization that supports the program.

How to Be Effective Using the Situational Classroom

Learning objectives are a key to selecting the best delivery approach for use by the instructor in a classroom. Once you determine the development and motivation level of your students, your learning objects should indicate when it is appropriate to be directive, when to use a coaching technique, when to be supportive and facilitate a group activity or when to delegate a learning approach.

Being practical, time is an element that also needs to be considered. For an individual class that is typically one hour in length it would be difficult for the instructor to effectively try and incorporate more than two delivery styles. Keep to the philosophy that the key to successful instruction in the situational classroom is matching the right delivery style to the development level of the student, at the correct time of need. The instructor should focus on a simple and effective delivery style. Subject matter substance should be emphasized over multiple styles when time is limited.

If you are teaching a half day or full day session, and the learning objectives indicate that a progressive learning track is the expected outcome then the use of multiple teaching styles and techniques might be considered. For a course that is a full day or longer, adult learners will find that instructors following a situational delivery progression more rewarding. If the learning activity is a day or two in length, as are many workshops and seminars for professional and executives, try not to cram too much “new” material into the timeframe. An eight hour or twenty hour course allows ample time to progress from a directive instruction style (lecture) to a delegating style of instruction (agreed upon action plan).

For those of you who teach an online instructor lead course, or certification courses, or traditional college classes I recommend breaking the overall course down into four parts. Start with the basics using directive, lecture approach and continue to progressively increase student involvement with each session. The instruction should progress slowly through each instructional style building one upon the other. The instructor needs to check regularly to ensure that students have reached the learning development level which matches the style of instruction that is being used.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, The One Minute Manager Builds High Performing Teams authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard, Donald Carew, Eunice Parisi-Carew.

A Situational Classroom: When to use a directive style

Educators all know the importance of clear, well written learning objectives. Knowing what you want the student to learn and what knowledge they should leave the classroom with is critical to the success of an instructor. Once the learning objectives are written the instructor needs to select the correct delivery approach to most effectively reach the students. Not all instructor delivery styles will effectively transfer the knowledge to the students identified in the learning objectives as intended. The variables of learning in the classroom are many but the instructor can increase his/her success rate by selecting and using the appropriate delivery style.

How do you know which delivery style is the most effective to use, and when? One method to selecting the appropriate style can be determined by referring to the core elements of situational leadership. There are four primary leadership delivery styles: directive, coaching, supportive, and delegating. What’s important to know about situational leadership is that it considerations the development level of the student. Using a four step sliding scale the student is rated on competence and commitment. Similar to reaching success following the situational leadership model, to achieve maximum learning the key to successful instruction in the situational classroom is matching the right delivery style to the development level of the student, at the correct time of need.

The best time for the instructor to use a directive style of delivery (telling and showing) is when the student has a high commitment to learning the subject but has little or no competence in the subject area (enthusiastic beginner). Examples of a directive style of delivery include speeches, lectures (PowerPoint), and demonstrations. On the internet, delivery of a webinar generally comes under the directive style of delivery.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, Leadership and the One Minute Manager authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard.

A Situational Classroom: When to use a coaching style

So your next class is intended for students who have some knowledge of the subject matter but they do not have a strong comprehension? The student’s commitment to advance their knowledge to learning more about the subject matter seems to be wavering. Think of the individual who learned the basics of tennis but wants to give up because they aren’t very good after four weeks of training and just can’t seem to consistently keep their serve between the lines. Or the individual who purchases a new phone for the twitter function but can’t figure out how to use the hash marks correctly so they just give up on that function.

After you finish writing the learning objectives for the class you realize that just telling the students about the topic or showing them how something is done is no longer the most effective approach for the student to truly learn the subject matter. You know that the student has some knowledge but realize too that the student does not yet have mastery of that subject matter. Knowing what you, the instructor want the student to learn and what knowledge they should retain after leaving the class is critical to the next level of learning in their development. The key to successful instruction in the situational classroom is matching the right delivery style to the development level of the student, at the correct time of need.

When students are at this moderate stage of learning development the use of role playing and roundtable discussions are two excellent ways to engage and support the students learning process. At this stage of the students development the instructional techniques require that the subject is told “how to” and/or is provided with a demonstration of what they are expected to learn. The student is then expected to try to demonstrate their knowledge or skill. The instructor stays involved by observing the demonstration and providing constructive feedback to the student. Ideally, this process is repeated until the student correctly demonstrates mastery of the knowledge or skill enough to take successfully to the next level. Some simple online gaming tools have been developed and designed that follow this model, such as the DMV’s defensive driving school. Using both a high directive style of instruction along with high supportive behavior and feedback, the instructor is using a coaching style of delivery correctly.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, Leadership and the One Minute Manager authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard.

A Situational Classroom: When to use a supporting style

You have now been working with your students for awhile and they are progressing in the subject matter. You notice that they have reached a high level of competence but you also note that the student’s commitment is not consistent and still varies. Think of the individual who has mastered most of the basic skills of drawing and design but is beginning to get bored by the daily routine and repetition of fine tuning the skills that they have already learned. After awhile it becomes difficult to stay focused and committed.

Your current learning objectives indicate that the next level of development is more than individual skills sets that the students have been practicing. The students are consistently demonstrating their mastery of the skills when required. They have grown to the point where they are becoming frustrated by either repeatedly being challenged by you or by challenging themselves. Since the key to successful instruction in the situational classroom is matching the right delivery style to the development level of the student, at the correct time of need, the students are ready to demonstrate their knowledge or skills in front of their peers.

Several excellent ways to engage students at this next moderate level of learning development include group activities such as gaming, case studies and charrettes. The instructors skills need to transform from directing, lecturing, coaching and feedback to one of facilitating, listening, praising and providing constructive feedback. At this stage of the students’ development the student interacts with peers demonstrating their knowledge and/or skill. The instructor stays involved but at more of a distance observing and guiding. For online instruction, chat rooms, discussion groups and designed group learning activities can provide similar results. For the instructor, using a low level of directive instruction along with high supportive behavior and feedback, the instructor is using a supporting style of delivery correctly.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, Leadership and the One Minute Manager authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard.

A Situational Classroom: When to use a delegating style

As your students progress, at some point they should reach a high level of understanding and competence in the subject matter. When they also demonstrate a high level of commitment it is the right time to adjust your instructional style, using a delegating style. Think of the individual who has mastered the basic theories and concepts. They have demonstrated some advanced technical techniques. Working in small teams they work well and are able to design some interesting buildings with sustainable features. As their instructor it is now time to challenge them again. Since the key to continued successful instruction in the situational classroom is matching the right delivery style to the development level of the student at the correct time of need. It is time for the student to demonstrate what they have learned moving beyond theory and concept and into practice.

Several models that you can use to engage students at this high level of learning development include research projects, self-directed studies, or learning contracts. It is time for the instructor to turn over responsibility to the student in decision-making. That means that the instructor provides little supervision or support. As within the structure of a contract, expectations and outcomes should be agreed upon between the instructor and student at the start of the project. Unless specified, either individual or network group approaches should be acceptable for the project. Upon completion of the project the instructor should providing constructive feedback.

For the instructor, using a low level of directive instruction along with low supportive behavior and feedback, the instructor is using a delegating style of delivery correctly. Delegating behavior should not be confused with dumping or “hands off” instruction. Delegating means that there is still some, just limited involvement of the instructor.

For individuals who wish to refresh their knowledge or who want to learn more about situational leadership, the basics upon which this learning approach is based, visit Wikipedia or read the book, Leadership and the One Minute Manager authored by Dr. Ken Blanchard.

A Situational Approach to Mentoring

Flickr photo by ariwriter

How do you design and build a situational mentoring program? Take the traditional approach of pairing or matching a mentor and mentee and turn it inside out by adding several more mentors and mentees. And yes, you now have a situational mentoring group or team.

In today’s society of social networking and media apps think in terms of pairing the best or most knowledgeable mentor at the right time and in the right situation when the mentee has the most need or desire to learn. As stated in the book Nine Shift, networking is replacing the hierarchy structure in business and society, so too should we restructure the mentoring process so that it draws from the strength of a network.

The foundation to situational mentoring is built upon the management concept of situational leadership, developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. A successful mentoring program requires that a mentor is able to share, convey, teach and/or impart their knowledge or skills to the mentee. The core of the Blanchard model, Situational Leadership II, highlights four primary leadership delivery styles: directive, coaching, supportive, and delegating. Like any good leader, the mentor is likely to be most effective in one or two delivery styles and less so in the others. A practical strength of situational leadership is that it also takes into consideration the development level of the subordinate, or in this case the mentee. Using a four step sliding scale the mentee is rated on competence and commitment.

The win – win of situational mentoring comes when the mentor using his or hers most effective delivery style is matched to the level of development of the mentee at the time of need. One example would be the mentor best at using a coaching approach when the mentee has a low commitment but some competence on a project. Another correct example would be the mentor most effective using a supporting approach is matched to the mentee who has high competence but variable commitment.

The intent of a well planned mentoring program is to identify key leaders (mentors) that are willing to share their knowledge and time with the next level of potential leaders (mentees). A situational designed mentoring program allows for the mentor who is most effective in a delivery approach to be matched with a mentee as the mentee learns and works through different development levels. It is very important that clear goals and expected learning outcomes are established and communicated from the outset of the mentoring experience by all participants of the group. A successful situational mentoring program can be a win – win –win for everyone, the mentor, the mentee, and the organization that supports the program.

A Situational Approach to Mentoring in an Association

Associations must rely on their members and volunteers if they are to build and maintain any form of a mentoring program. Often an association's approach is to establish a committee and support their efforts by assigning a junior staff as a liaison. A better organized approach that some associations use is to assign a manager or director level staff to actively support the committee or mentor program advisory team. Then they build a traditional approach of pairing mentors and mentees is the typical format.

The foundation to situational mentoring is built upon the management concept of situational leadership, developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. A successful mentoring program requires that a mentor is able to share, convey, teach and/or impart their knowledge or skills to the mentee. The core of the Blanchard model, Situational Leadership II, highlights four primary leadership delivery styles: directive, coaching, supportive, and delegating. Like any good leader, the mentor is likely to be most effective in one or two delivery styles and less so in the others. A practical strength of situational leadership is that it also takes into consideration the development level of the subordinate, or in this case the mentee. Using a four step sliding scale the mentee is rated on competence and commitment.

To build a situational mentoring program I recommend assigning a manager at the operationally level with a director involved in a supportive and strategic level. Using a social networking format structure think in terms of pairing the best or most knowledgeable mentor at the right time and in the right situation when the mentee has the most need or desire to learn. This is not an easy assignment but it is critical to the program’s success. A manager is likely to have the required technical, conceptual and personal skills that will be necessary to correctly match mentors with mentees at the appropriate times and under the right situations. While it is important to get input, recommendations and involvement from the committee or advisory council, the operations and scheduling process should the managers responsibility and not be left up to the volunteers. Remember, the win – win of situational mentoring comes when the mentor uses his or her most effective delivery style matched correctly to the level of development of the mentee at the time of need.

The director may occasionally be required to support the manager’s scheduling should a situation need a specific infusion or a change of players. Politics is a reality in associations and can become very sensitive when relying on the use of volunteers. The director is generally in a better position to handle those particular situations. The director will generally have more senior level contacts among the volunteers so they should also be involved in the continual recruitment of skilled and positioned mentors.

We welcome those of you who participate in or manage a mentoring program as part of your association to share your experiences. Simply send a your rely message and share your story.

A Traditional Approach to Mentoring

Flickr photo by Nantucket Historical Association

A mentoring program, as most professional development specialist would agree is generally built upon a pairing or matching of a mentor and mentee. A mentoring program is generally successful when the mentor is able to share, convey, teach and/or impart their knowledge or skills to the mentee. Historically the mentoring program grew from the concept of the apprenticeship where the master of a trade would impart their knowledge and skill to the apprentice. In many situations this is a very informal, loose understanding between two parties, the mentor and mentee. You are likely to find this scenario within a small office or across a profession with similar issues.

Creating a formal mentoring structure gets more complicate but the rewards can be great if the program is planned, designed and implemented well. Within a firm that structures such a program the firm may title such activities as a mentoring program, an internship, or even an intern development program (IDP). Some associations representing an industry or profession have similar programs. Some of the general benefits may be involvement of senior leadership and growth and development of the emerging professionals. For firms this may lead to better internal communications, improved retention and recruitment of staff, and a better return on financial investments of the human resource budgets.

The intent of a well planned mentoring program is to identify key leaders (mentors) that are willing to share their knowledge and time with the next level of potential leaders (mentees). A well designed program will set a framework and provide guidelines that participants use when participating in such a program. A well designed mentoring program allows for the mentor and mentee establishing goals and expected leaning outcomes from the experience. A successful mentoring program can be a win – win –win for everyone, the mentor, the mentee, and the organization that supports the program.

Pages